City2City
Cities Policy Responses to COVID-19

27 July 2020 - This note was developed by the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities (CFE) in collaboration with the OECD Working Party for Urban Policy and the OECD Champion Mayors Initiative for Inclusive Growth. It is an update of the earlier versions released on 27 March and 13 May, which expands the examples of measures taken by cities to respond to COVID-19 and recover from the economic and social crisis.

27 July 2020 - This note was developed by the OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities (CFE) in collaboration with the OECD Working Party for Urban Policy and the OECD Champion Mayors Initiative for Inclusive Growth. It is an update of the earlier versions released on 27 March and 13 May, which expands the examples of measures taken by cities to respond to COVID-19 and recover from the economic and social crisis.

The note provides analysis on issues related to the economic, social and environmental impacts, lessons learned in terms of digitalisation, mobility, density, urban design and collaborative governance, and action-oriented guidance to build back better cities, building on previous work on urban resilience. Short and medium term responses provided by cities are clustered around six categories: i) social distancing; ii) workplace and commuting; iii) vulnerable groups; iv) local service delivery; v) support to business; and vi) communication, awareness raising and digital tools.

The note also includes updated information on how cities are progressively exiting the lockdown. Annex A provides more detailed information on long-term city recovery strategies. Annex B provides more detailed information on the inventoried city initiatives during lockdown and exiting. Annex C maps efforts from selected organisations and city networks to collect city responses and foster knowledge and experience sharing.

Find more information and download the full report here: https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/cities-policy-responses-fd1053ff/

Africa’s Urbanisation Dynamics 2020 - AFRICAPOLIS, MAPPING A NEW URBAN GEOGRAPHY

Table of contents

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 13 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 14

CHAPTER 1

THE CHALLENGES OF MEASURING URBANISATION IN AFRICA 17

Table of contents

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 13 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 14

CHAPTER 1

THE CHALLENGES OF MEASURING URBANISATION IN AFRICA 17

THE LIMITATIONS OF OFFICIAL DEFINITIONS OF URBAN

Three approaches to defining urban

The absence of a universally accepted definition

A bias in international statistics on large agglomerations

THE BENEFITS OF A SPATIAL APPROACH

Sprawl and urban administrative boundaries In situ urbanisation of rural areas

The formation of metropolitan regions

AFRICAPOLIS: A NEW VISION OF AFRICAN URBANISATION

A bottom-up approach

A complement to national statistics Notes

References

CHAPTER 2

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18 20 23

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25 27 29

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30 33 36 36

GEO-STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF URBANISATION DYNAMICS IN AFRICA 37

LEVEL AND PACE OF URBANISATION

The level of urbanisation

The pace of urban transition in Africa Urban population growth

AGGLOMERATION SIZE AND URBAN SYSTEMS

The distribution of urban networks

THE EVOLVING GEOGRAPHY OF URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS

Transnational and national patterns in urban clusters The continued emergence of new agglomerations

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38 39 40

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48 49

AFRICA'S URBANISATION DYNAMICS 2020 © OECD 2020

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Table of contents

Proximity and distance Notes

References

CHAPTER 3

HISTORY, POLITICS, ENVIRONMENT AND URBAN FORMS IN AFRICA

HISTORICAL, POLITICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT

Demographic conditions of urban growth Political contexts and urbanisation Environmental context

LOCAL URBAN FORMS

The main spatial attractors

Combinations of spatial attractors

What models of development for agglomerations? Notes

References

CHAPTER 4

AFRICA'S NEW URBAN DYNAMICS

LARGER AGGLOMERATIONS AND NEW FORMS OF URBANISATION

The dominance of national metropoles

A new scale of African urbanisation: Metropolitan regions The emergence of mega-agglomerations

COASTAL URBANISATION AND INTERIOR URBANISATION

Africa's low urban coastalisation Emergence of an inner urban Africa

THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE URBAN

The balance between humans and nature Prospects for sustainable development Notes

References

55 56 57

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61 64 66

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79 92 95 96 97

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100 103 108

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118 120

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123 126 128 129

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AFRICA'S URBANISATION DYNAMICS 2020

© OECD 2020

Table of contents

ANNEXE A

PROCESSING SATELLITE IMAGES 130

ANNEXE B

URBAN POPULATION 136

ANNEXE C

URBAN POPULATION GROWTH 138

ANNEXE D

LEVEL OF URBANISATION 140

ANNEXE E

ANNEXE F

ANNEXE G

AVERAGE DISTANCE BETWEEN AGGLOMERATIONS 146

ANNEXE H

STATISTICAL ANNEX 148 GLOSSARY 199

City Policy Responses: Tackling Coronavirus (COVID-19)

7 April 2020 - This document provides examples of measures taken by cities to respond to the current coronavirus epidemic, clustered around six categories: i) communication and awareness-raising, ii) workplace and commuting; iii) social distance; iv) vulnerable groups; v) local service delivery, and vi) support to the business.

7 April 2020 - As COVID-19 continues to spread through cities around the world, with a devastating impact on local communities and the wellbeing of residents, local governments have also been at the frontline of combating the outbreak. Most national governments are taking the lead to minimize the spread of the virus,and cities are complementing these measures to respond to COVID-19 policy challenges on the ground.

In many countries, the role of cities has been two-fold:

  • They have been implementation vehicles of nation-wide measures such as the confinement, thanks to their enforcement capacity (e.g. municipal police) or their local prerogatives (e.g. closure of public parks and gardens);
  • They have been experimenting more bottom-up, innovative responses while resorting to technology or other resources and building on their unique proximity to citizens (e.g. special attention to vulnerable groups).

The OECD is collecting policy responses in cities experiencing the outbreak to help other cities prepare for the spread of the virus. Based on desk research and selected contributions by focal points of the OECD Champion Mayors for Inclusive Growth Initiative8, this note explores how cities around the world, in close coordination with national governments, are working to protect their residents, halt the spread of the virus and protect their local economies during these unprecedented times. The examples collected from several dozen cities (accessible in Annex A) are clustered into six categories of policy responses, which have been deployed at varying degrees depending on the level of advancement of the pandemic:

  • Communication and awareness-raising
  • Workplace practices and commuting patterns
  • Social distance and confinement
  • Targeted measures for vulnerable groups
  • Local service delivery, notably water and waste
  • Support for business and economic recovery

CONTINUE READING: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=126_126769-yen45847kf&title=Coronavirus-COVID-19-Cities-Policy-Responses

Africa's Urbanisation Dynamics 2020: Africapolis, Mapping a New Urban Geography

Africa is projected to have the fastest urban growth rate in the world: by 2050, Africa’s cities will be home to an additional 950 million people.

Much of this growth is taking place in small and medium-sized towns. Africa’s urban transition offers great opportunities but it also poses significant challenges. Urban agglomerations are developing most often without the benefit of policies or investments able to meet these challenges. Urban planning and management are therefore key development issues. Understanding urbanization, its drivers, dynamics, and impacts are essential for designing targeted, inclusive and forward-looking policies at local, national and continental levels. This report, based on the Africapolis geospatial database (www.africapolis.org) covering 7,600 urban agglomerations in 50 African countries, provides detailed analyses of major African urbanization dynamics placed within historical, environmental and political contexts. Covering the entire distribution of the urban network — from small towns and secondary cities to large metropolitan regions — it develops more inclusive and targeted policy options that integrate local, national and regional scales of urban development in line with African realities.

Africa's Urbanisation Dynamics 2020: Africapolis, Mapping a New Urban Geography can be accessed at the following link from February 07, 2020:

http://www.oecd.org/publications/africa-s-urbanisation-dynamics-2020-b6bccb81-en.htm