Climate Action Plan Development in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam

Monday, 8 February, 2021

Climate Action Plan Development in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam

by International Urban Cooperation (IUC) | Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy | United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) | European Union 


With the support from the European Union, International Urban Cooperation (IUC) Asia programme selects twelve cities to receive technical assistance as pilot cities to develop their own globally-recognized Climate Action Plans (CAPs), in compliance with GCoM’s Common Reporting Framework (CRF). The pilot cities are located in three different countries: Indonesia (Palembang, Depok, Malang, Denpasar, and Makassar), Malaysia (Penampang, Tawau, Muar, and Hang Tuah Jaya), and Vietnam (Tam Ky, Da Nang, and Can Tho).


In assisting the 12 pilot cities in the Southeast Asian region, IUC Asia collected varying amounts of data from both mitigation and adaptation planning. This leads to a number of findings that highlight patterns within the region.

In climate mitigation, it is found that the energy sector significantly dominates the source of emissions in all Indonesian, Malaysian and Vietnamese pilot cities, specifically the stationary energy – including both direct and indirect emissions on grid electricity consumption. Upon further inspection, the sources of these stationary energy emissions differ in each country. Both in Malaysian and Vietnamese pilot cities, the emissions are mostly produced by the industrial sectors and this fact is further supported by the data of each city’s major economic activities which revolve around industrial production.

Meanwhile, in Indonesian pilot cities, with exception of Palembang, the largest shares of stationary energy emission are produced by the residential sectors which corresponds to its biggest portion of land use.

It is also interesting to highlight that per capita emission of all pilot cities is slightly higher or about the same with the national average emission. This supports the fact that cities significantly contribute to environmental impact at the global level, further emphasizing the importance of local actions to meaningfully reduce emissions.

In climate adaptation, we found that flood is the climate hazard found in all twelve IUC Asia’s pilot cities across three countries. Additionally, it has become evident that the adaptation actions adopted in Indonesian pilot cities are substantially different from the ones adopted in Malaysia and Vietnam.

Apparently, this is due to the fact that the characteristics of Indonesian pilot cities are contrasting to both the Malaysian and Vietnamese cities – the population density in Indonesia is ranging between 4,400 to 11,000 people/km2, while the population density in both Malaysia and Vietnam fall between the number of 65 to 1,400 people/km2. Therefore, the adaptation actions planned for Indonesian pilot cities are focused on the issue of high density and rapid urbanization which contributes to their low adaptive capacity.

Access the full report here